History and Evolution of Modern Police Batons

For most of history, police batons and similar weapons to police batons have been a symbol of honor and pride for high authority government officials and law enforcement officers.  A police officer trained to use the baton was considered a dangerous yet valuable asset. 

The police baton, also known as a billy club or nightstick, has a long history as a versatile tool and weapon for law enforcement. The term “billy club” first appeared in dictionaries in 1848 as slang for a burglar’s crowbar [1]

The word is said to have originated from “bully club,” a term used by students at Yale University in the early 1800s to refer to the ceremonial mace carried by the newly appointed captain of the college [2]. This bully club represented the captain’s authority and status. The bully club is said to have come from an incident where a student bravely stood his ground in a dangerous situation with the help of a baton.

Table of Contents

Evolution of Police Batons

For almost 400 years, law enforcement batons have transformed to accommodate more technological changes and the needs of law enforcement professionals. Here’s a look at the evolution of the police club:

Jitte or Jutte – (1600 – 1868)

Non-lethal weapons like self-defense batons have long existed, for example, the Jitte or Jutte was a popular weapon of choice between 1603 and 1868, also referred to as the Edo period or Tokugawa period [3].  

Jitte became a thing when carrying a sword was declared a crime punishable by death, including for palace guards hence they were awarded a non-blade weapon: Jitte. It was a metal rod with a pointed tip and a hook for blocking and catching sword attacks.

Truncheons & Straight Wooden Batons & Billy Clubs – (1829 – Late 20th Century)

The police baton became one of the first standard weapons issued to police officers in the 19th and 20th centuries. It also goes by the names, truncheons, billy clubs, espatoon, and fire axe. 

The police truncheons are a few of the first impact weapons to be issued to law enforcement. London’s first police department, formed by Sir Robert Peel in 1829 also carried wooden truncheons [2]

British Police continued using these straight wood batons and collapsible truncheons well into the Victorian era. Most American police forces also carried long wooden batons until the 1960s.

The straight baton could cause serious bodily damage including, internal bleeding, concussion, and other serious injuries. Their rigid shape made them difficult to carry and wear on a duty belt. The lack of a handle also made wrist manipulation techniques more challenging.

Simple to useLimited control over suspects
Durable materialsBulky and cumbersome to carry
Longer reachRisk of injury with incorrect use
Versatile for multiple usesNegative public perception
Intimidating presenceRequires proper training

 Side Handle Batons – (1970s)

The development of the police baton with side handle came amid growing public scrutiny over police brutality against minorities in the 1960s. The imagery of violent crackdowns on civil rights protests, often involving police batons, had associated the weapon with excessive force in the minds of many Americans. Batons became a symbol of oppression and the country demanded policing reform.

As blame mounted, the hitherto offensively oriented police baton emerged as a prime scapegoat. Police administrators faced public pressure to restrict police baton use to signal reform and counter the narrative of systemic police violence. 

It was in this climate that new baton designs were created not just to strike suspects, but to defend officers from harm within the boundaries of proportional force. The iconic PR-24 police baton with handle aimed to reshape the weapon’s image from a blunt instrument of brutality into a sophisticated tool for lawful control and self-defense.

In 1972, American law enforcement adopted the side-handle baton, with the Monadnock PR-24 police baton becoming one of the most popular models and official part of the US police gear [4]. The invention of the Monadnock PR24 baton was one single major turning point in the evolution of law enforcement batons. The first-ever side baton was designed by Loc Anderson. 

Although very similar to the original truncheon the only addition to this baton was a side handle to allow for blocking and better crowd control compared to a straight baton, making it more of a defensive tool. 

During this time, New York police officers carried two different batons – a day stick and a nightstick baton. This is where the name police nightstick originated. The use of billy clubs spread to New York and other major cities as a non-lethal weapon option.

Versatile for multiple techniquesRequires more extensive training
Enhanced defensive capabilityMore complex to use in high-stress situations
Allows for control techniquesHeavier and bulkier than straight batons
Longer reach for a safer distanceLimited effectiveness in tight spaces
Intimidating appearanceRequires more maintenance for moving parts

Collapsible Batons – (1980s)

Police reforms after the 1960s civil rights movement and the abandonment of the Straight Baton divided the business into 2 schools of thought, neo-professionals and conservatives. Conservatives argued that the side handle batons were cumbersome and were hindering the performance of the police force at the scene and many officers reported that they were leaving the batons behind even when the policies advised otherwise.

This resulted in another major change in the design of the police batons in 1980 when Kevin Parson transformed the Japanese Kannabo into a collapsable baton [5]. Japanese Kannabo was used as a war club by law enforcement and Japanese samurai, it was a long metal rod featuring spikes. 

Kevin Parson through ASP reimagined this metal stick into a compact collapsable baton, which used a friction lock system to bring it to its full position. This solved the side handle baton’s sizing issues, it was easily carried with a police officer’s belt even when riding, hence adapted quickly and ASP became a name synonymous with police batons.

Though the ASP police baton solved issues of portability, when extended for use it was just a straight or side-handle baton with the same limitations and more. There were complaints of unintended collapsing and locks failing during tense encounters.

Further complaints had allegations of inadequate striking force due to it being hollow; accidental closure; bending under hard impacts; and rust on exposure to wet climates.

While complaints were not universal, they sure did highlight that convenience came at some cost in functionality compared to a fixed wooden baton. However, police collapsible batons continued to prevail based on the carrying benefits for officers needing accessible control tools for a range of unpredictable situations.

Easily carried on a police officer’s belt, even when riding.Complaints of batons collapsing during tense encounters.
Quickly adopted by police forces due to its compact design.Inadequate striking force due to its hollow construction.
Addressed the size and bulk issues of side handle police baton.Bends Under Impact
Rust in Wet Climates
Issues with the friction lock system failing.

Rapid Rotation Batons – (1990s)

The flaws of the collapsible batons set the stage for new types of law enforcement batons by Rapid Rotation Batons RRB system international in 1996 [5]. Roy Bedard took all the advantages of a straight, side, and collapsible baton combined into one and removed the negatives of these batons. 

The RRBs are easy to carry easy to train and provide the defensive capabilities of side handle batons, offensive capabilities of Straight Batons, and the convenience of retractable batons. The rapid rotation batons are now widely adopted by law enforcement forces around the world including, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and many more.

WieldingIncreased Risk of Disarming
Blocking AbilityPerceived as  Showy
Non-Collapsible CoreLegal and Liability Concerns

The Public Perception of Police Batons

The perception of police batons has evolved significantly over time, shaped by historical events, the influence of international humanitarian organizations, and media coverage. Here’s a look at the timeline of events that shaped the public’s perception of batons that exist today:

19th Century: The early use of Police batons, also known as truncheons or nightsticks, billy clubs, by law enforcement officers for centuries was as a tool for maintaining order and enforcing the law. The police batons were seen as symbols of authority, pride and as a means of self-defense for officers. During this period police batons were the single major non-lethal weapon. A look at these sturdy instruments was enough to restore order meaning the public feared these batons since they could and had caused serious injuries.

The 1960s Civil Rights Movement: In the United States, the perception of police batons began to shift during the civil rights movement of the 1960s. High-profile incidents, such as the violent response to peaceful protesters in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, highlighted the potential for misuse of batons. Images of police officers wielding batons against unarmed demonstrators were broadcasted nationwide, sparking public outrage and calls for reform.

In the years following the civil rights movement, there was a push toward community policing, a strategy aimed at building trust and cooperation between police departments and communities, which indirectly addressed concerns about excessive force.

The 1990s and the Rodney King Incident: The public’s perception of police batons took another significant turn following the 1991 beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers. The incident, captured on video and widely circulated on social media, showed officers repeatedly striking King with their batons.

The Rodney King incident sparked a series of riots and a national conversation about police brutality and accountability [6]. This led to the adoption of various reforms across the United States, such as the installation of body cameras, revised use-of-force policies, and increased emphasis on de-escalation training.

International Humanitarian Organizations and Media Influence: Humanitarian organizations like Amnesty International have played an important role in documenting and raising awareness about the misuse of police batons. Their report “Blunt Force” highlights cases from around the world where batons and other “less lethal” weapons have been used excessively by police, often resulting in serious injuries or death [7]​​. 

For example, the report mentions the case of Tiyon Williams, a 29-year-old Black man from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, who suffered a fractured jaw and lost several teeth after being struck in the face with a police baton during a protest in May 2020 [8].

Media coverage, both traditional and social media, has amplified these findings, bringing attention to individual incidents and contributing to a broader discussion about the appropriate use of force by law enforcement.

Ethical and Legal Considerations Regarding Baton Use

The use of a self defense stick has always been scrutinized by media and the public giving rise to the technological advancements in the development of police batons. This scrutiny has resulted in legal reforms and calls for the ethical use of batons.

Ethical Considerations

Batons come with a high degree of ethical consideration. A little mistake can bring about a lifetime of trauma or disability to the victim. Ethical considerations below can be used to make an informed decision

Proportionality: if necessary the force used should be proportional to the threat faced. Using a baton in a situation that could be resolved without force is ethically problematic.

Intent: The intent behind using a self protection baton is also an important ethical consideration. If the intent is to cause unnecessary harm rather than to neutralize a threat, the use of force is unethical.

Training and Accountability: It is the ethical duty of the individuals who choose to carry batons to train properly in their use and be held accountable for their actions. Consciously choosing to use and carry a weapon that can be lethal is ethically questionable.Intent: The intent behind using a self defence stick is also an important ethical consideration and is also a basis of legality in some states. If the intent is to cause unnecessary harm rather than to neutralize a threat, the use of force is considered unethical.

The Continuum of Force

Force continuum, a framework utilized by law enforcement officers to control a situation determines the decision based on the behavior of the subject. Force continuum tries to resolve the problem with the least amount of force possible starting from verbal commands to soft control to hard control to less than lethal force to lethal force.

Lethal force must be used only if other means a ineffective and there is a deadly risk to the life involved. The continuum of force framework, while a valuable tool for law enforcement, has severe limitations, for example, reliance on the subjective judgment of the individual, which may be incorrect; challenges in applying the framework to dynamic and rapidly evolving situations; the dependence on the quality of training and individual interpretation, which may result in misuse; legal scrutiny in cases of questioned force use; and the risk of overemphasizing force escalation rather than prioritizing de-escalation and communication.

Legal Considerations

The use of police batons is subject to a number of legal considerations based on their different areas and states and types of batons. The laws surrounding the use of batons are complex, some states allow citizens to carry batons, and some states don’t, in some states it is illegal to conceal and carry batons, while in some you can only own but not carry. Read in detail about the existing baton laws in the United States here.

Protocols and Training for Baton Use

Protocols for Baton Use

The First step towards using batons properly is getting to know the basic protocols of baton use. These include which areas to strike and which areas to avoid.

Areas to Target

When using baton strikes aim for the extremities or lower abdomen, depending on the technique. Use care and control to avoid serious injury. Small bones in the hand are vulnerable to breaking. Striking the hand is effective when the suspect intends to use a weapon (other than a firearm) against you. Blows to the heavily muscled areas of the arms and legs are effective and may cause pain, numbness, and cramping but rarely serious damage.

  • Hands
  • Arms (inner/outer biceps, elbows, wrists)
  • Lower abdomen (below the navel)
  • Legs (thighs, shins, calves)
  • Feet

Areas to Avoid

There are vital areas of the body where strikes may result in serious or fatal injury and can get you in serious legal trouble. These areas should be avoided.

  • Head (can cause blindness, deafness, unconsciousness, brain damage, death)
  • Neck/Throat (can fracture vertebrae, damage the spinal cord, rupture jugular vein/carotid artery)
  • Spine (contains central nervous system; blows can cause paralysis or death)
  • Tailbone (blows can cause paralysis or death)
  • Chest (contains heart and other vital organs; blows can cause serious injury or death)
  • Kidney/Liver (rupture can release poisons causing death)
  • Clavicle/Collar bone (severe blows can cause paralysis or death)

How to Use a Baton?

Due to the level of injury a wrong baton strike can cause to the victim it is important to have a proper understanding of protocols and usage of batons. Below is an overview of basic baton strikes, how to carry out these strikes, and what areas to target.

Baton Strikes

Horizontal Strike

A powerful strike is delivered horizontally from the dominant side toward the target, usually aimed at the arms, legs, or torso. Effective in situations requiring a strong, controlled response, such as subduing an aggressive attacker or creating distance.


  1. Stand in a ready stance with feet shoulder-width apart.
  2. Grip the baton firmly with your dominant hand.
  3. Swing the baton horizontally towards the target, rotating your hips and shoulders to generate power.
  4. Aim for large muscle groups to incapacitate without causing unnecessary harm.
Horizontal Backhand Strike

A strike delivered horizontally from the non-dominant side across the body, targeting similar areas as the forehand strike. Useful for defending against attacks from the side or for counterstrikes when the dominant side is restricted.


  1. Stand in a ready stance with feet shoulder-width apart.
  2. Grip the baton firmly with your dominant hand.
  3. Swing the baton horizontally towards the target, rotating your hips and shoulders to generate power.
  4. Aim for large muscle groups to incapacitate without causing unnecessary harm.
Vertical Strike

A downward strike aimed at the head, shoulders, or back, using gravity to increase its force. Suitable for close-quarters situations where a downward strike can be more effective, such as when an attacker is bending forward.


  1. Stand in a ready stance with the baton held overhead.
  2. Strike downward towards the target, using your whole body to generate force.
  3. Aim for the shoulders, back, or head, depending on the situation and legal considerations.

A quick, thrusting strike aimed at the torso or face, used to create distance or target specific areas. Ideal for quick defense, creating distance, or targeting specific areas when precision is required.


  1. Stand in a ready stance with the baton held vertically in front of you.
  2. Thrust the baton forward towards the target, using your body weight to add force.
  3. Aim for the chest, abdomen, or face, depending on the threat level and legal considerations.
Angle Strike

A diagonal strike that can bypass obstacles or target specific areas, such as the collarbone or thighs. Effective in situations where a direct strike is not possible or when targeting specific vulnerable areas.


  1. Stand in a ready stance with the baton held diagonally above your shoulder.
  2. Swing the baton down and across your body, targeting the collarbone, thighs, or other specific areas.
  3. Use your hips and shoulders to generate power and control the angle of the strike.

Defensive Blocks

Defensive blocks are used to block or avoid incoming strikes or attacks. Four basic types of blocks include

Types of Defensive Blocks

High Block: Used to protect the head and upper body from overhead strikes. The baton is held horizontally above the head.

Side Block: Used to protect the sides of the body from horizontal strikes. The baton is held vertically or diagonally, depending on the angle of the incoming strike.

Low Block: Used to protect the lower body from low strikes. The baton is held horizontally or diagonally across the lower abdomen or legs.


  1. Anticipate the direction of the incoming strike.
  2. Position the baton quickly to intercept the strike, using the appropriate block for the angle of the attack.
  3. Absorb the impact of the strike with the baton, keeping a firm grip and maintaining a balanced stance.
  4. Counterstrike or create distance as necessary, depending on the situation and threat level.

Defense Against Edged Weapons Using Baton

When defending against an attacker wielding an edged weapon, such as a knife, the primary goal is to maintain distance, block the attack, and disarm or incapacitate the attacker if necessary.


Distance: Keep a safe distance from the attacker to reduce the risk of being cut or stabbed.

Block: Use the baton to block or deflect the attacker’s strikes. The baton can be held horizontally or vertically to protect vital areas.Counterstrike: After successfully blocking an attack, use the opportunity to counterstrike with the baton, targeting the attacker’s arm or hand holding the weapon, or other vulnerable areas.

The Role of Batons in Correctional Facilities, Crowd Control, and Reliance on Deadly Weapons

Batons have long played an important role in correctional facilities and crowd control situations where officers must maintain security and order. The presence of a baton displays authority and can deter unruly behavior without needing to resort to higher levels of force.

Inside prisons and jails, batons serve as a critical tool for officers facing heightened risks from potentially violent inmates. Swift jabs or blocks with a baton can stop attacks and restore control of dangerous situations. Expandable and fixed handle batons allow officers to carry the tool discreetly until needed.

For crowd control, batons also provide a visible symbol of force to maintain peace. Historically, rigid wooden police batons were used by riot police to push back unruly protestors when needed. Some jurisdictions still require police officers to obtain permission from higher-ups to use in these situations. More modern crowd control tactics rely less on striking, but batons remain valuable for some riot control units.

Compared to deadly weapons, batons enable officers to escalate their level of force more gradually. For much of policing history, batons served as an intermediate option between empty hands and firearms for officers facing resistance.

However, concerns over baton-related injuries have led some police departments to restrict their use. The development of newer less lethal weapons like tasers, pepper spray, and rubber bullets has also reduced reliance on batons in recent decades. But batons still hold an important place in the force continuum when used properly by trained personnel.

Similar Weapons to Police Baton

Batons Vs Blackjacks

A blackjack, also known as a police sap weapon or a cosh, is a small, easily concealed club consisting of a leather-wrapped lead weight attached to the end of a spring or rigid shaft. The legality of carrying or using a blackjack varies across the United States. 


In many states, blackjacks are considered prohibited weapons and are illegal for civilians to carry. Some states allow law enforcement officers to carry them with proper training and authorization.

Batons vs. Stun Guns

Stun guns are a similar weapon to tasers but require the user to be within arm’s reach of the opponent. The legality of stun guns is the same as tasers but it is important to ask your attorney for proper date information.

Batons vs. Pepper Sprays

Pepper spray is a form of aerosol spray used for self-defense containing oleoresin. This spray irritates the eyes and skin temporarily disabling the assailant. These sprays are legal in all States and can be carried for self-defense.

Batons vs. Tasers

Tasers, now a part of the US police’s uniform in most states, are an electric device that is used to incapacitate the opponent without resulting in fatal injuries. Tasers can deliver an electric shock of 50,000-150,000 volts depending on their power and can be fired from a distance. Tasers are legal to carry in all states except, Hawaii and Rhode. Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin may require a permit for carrying Tasers or stun guns.

Batons vs. Kubotans

Kubotans are small keychains like defensive tools made out of hard plastic or other solid materials. Kubotans were introduced around the 1960s and were originally 5.5” inches long at max [9]. Since Kubatons can be carried as a concealed less-than-lethal weapon, some jurisdictions may not allow its use legally. 

Tactical Batons vs. Tactical Flashlights

Unlike police batons tactical flashlights are designed to distort the opponent’s vision temporarily. These do not require the use of physical force against the opponent and, therefore, are generally legal throughout the States. 

BatonsBlackjacksStun GunsPepper SpraysTasersKubotansTactical Flashlights
DesignLong cylindrical Small, HandheldHandheld devices with electrodesSmall canisters with spray mechanismHandheld devices with shooting probesSmall, handheld rodsHandheld flashlights, often with a sturdy design
MaterialWood, Plastic, Steel, and other synthetic materialLeather or other Heavy MaterialPlastic, metal, electronic componentsChemical irritants, propellant, plasticPlastic, metal, electronic componentsMetal, plastic, woodMetal, LED components, glass
Usestriking, jabbing, or blocking an attackerStrikingIncapacitating with electric shockIncapacitating with chemical irritantIncapacitating with electric shockPressure point manipulation, strikingIllumination, improvised striking tool
TrainingSome variations may require specialized training for decreasing after effectsMay or may not need trainingSome training recommended for safetyRecommended for effective useRequired for safe and effective useSome training recommended for effective useBasic familiarity with flashlight recommended
Legal StatusDepends on jurisdiction and type of BatonMostly illegalVaries by stateGenerally legal, Vary by stateRestricted or prohibited in some statesGenerally legal, but may be considered a weapon in some areasGenerally legal without restrictions

Technological Advancements in Batons

The baton industry has undergone a remarkable transformation, driven by the increasing demand for more effective and user-friendly law enforcement tools. 

Design-Based Innovation

Gone are the days of the traditional fixed-length batons. Today, modern batons boast a versatile expandable design, allowing law enforcement officers to effortlessly extend them for use and retract them for convenient portability. This shift offers a perfect balance between reach and compactness, revolutionizing the way officers operate.

Redefined User Experience

The focus on ergonomics has led to the development of batons with grips designed for a more secure and comfortable hold. This minimizes the risk of slippage during use and reduces hand fatigue, ensuring that officers can perform their duties effectively and safely.

Multitool Batons

In a significant leap forward, baton multitools have emerged as a game-changer in law enforcement equipment. These innovative devices combine the traditional baton with various other self-defense tools, such as tactical flashlights, tasers, glass breakers, and pepper spray. This multifunctional approach reduces the need for officers to carry multiple items separately.

Enhancing Defensive Capacity

Modern batons are not just for striking; they are designed for a range of defensive maneuvers, including blocking attacks and restraining suspects. This versatility provides law enforcement officers with a more comprehensive tool for maintaining safety and order.

Security System-Based Innovations

Unlike earlier wooden billy clubs, contemporary batons are equipped with sophisticated locking systems, such as ball bearing locks, friction locks, auto-lock technology, and impact release mechanisms. These features ensure that the baton remains desired during use, preventing unintentional retraction or extension and enhancing reliability and safety.

Material-Based Innovations

The construction material of the batons has moved past metal and wood to include more synthetic materials such as rubber, hard plastic, and advanced polymers like steel and aluminum. These materials offer improved durability, weight reduction, and varying degrees of flexibility and impact resistance, catering to the diverse needs of law enforcement agencies.


The history and evolution of modern police batons reflect a journey of innovation, adaptation, and a commitment to law enforcement effectiveness and safety. From their early origins to the technological advancements of today, police batons have remained a vital tool in the arsenal of law enforcement officers. The ongoing evolution of baton technology and tactics underscores the importance of these tools in maintaining public order, ensuring officer safety, and upholding the principles of justice. As we look to the future, the continued development and refinement of police batons will undoubtedly play a crucial role in the evolution of modern law enforcement practices.


Why do police not carry batons anymore?

Police batons are often replaced by other less-lethal options due to scrutiny over their effectiveness and potential harm.

What is a billy club?

A billy club, also known as a baton, is a short, thick stick used by police for self-defense.

Why are batons shaped like that?

Batons are shaped to enable specific defensive and offensive techniques.

Can civilians have collapsible batons?

The legality of collapsible batons varies by region; check local laws for specifics.

Are batons less lethal?

Yes, batons are classified as less-than-lethal weapons.

Can batons break bones?

Yes, a baton can break bones if struck with enough force.

Can police hit you on the head with a baton?

Police can use force, including batons if justified by the situation and in accordance with the law.

Can a police baton break a window?

Yes, a police baton can be used to break a window, and some are designed with built-in glass breakers.

What size baton is best for self-defense?

For self-defense, a baton size of 20-23 inches is typically recommended.

Can you defend yourself with a baton?

Yes, a baton can be used for self-defense, including blocking strikes.

How much damage can a baton do?

A baton can cause significant damage, including breaking bones and potentially fatal injuries.

What is the longest tactical baton?

The longest tactical baton is a 39-inch expandable baton, manufactured by NEX.

How heavy is a police baton?

The weight of a police baton varies depending on the brand and type.

What level of force is a baton?

A baton is considered a weapon of intermediate force.


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  2. Mental Floss. (n.d.). Why Is a Police Baton Called a ‘Billy Club’? Retrieved from https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/581940/why-police-baton-called-billy-club
  3. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Jitte. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jitte#:~:text=In%20Edo%2Dperiod%20Japan%2C%20the,(called%20okappiki%20or%20doshin).
  4. DocPlayer. (n.d.). Where Have All the Batons Gone? Introducing the Rapid Rotation Baton (RRB). Retrieved from https://docplayer.net/137224316-Where-have-all-the-batons-gone-introducing-the-rapid-rotation-baton-rrb.html
  5. Police1. (n.d.). Where Have All the Batons Gone? Retrieved from https://www.police1.com/police-products/less-lethal/batons/articles/where-have-all-the-batons-gone-RHbRIBXJkQ4BLOKE/
  6. NPR. (2017, April 26). When LA Erupted In Anger: A Look Back At The Rodney King Riots. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2017/04/26/524744989/when-la-erupted-in-anger-a-look-back-at-the-rodney-king-riots
  7. Amnesty International. (2021, September). Blunt Force: Global Calls to Ban the Use of Rubber Bullets. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2021/09/blunt-force/
  8. Baltimore Brew. (2016, July 12). Victim of widely publicized police beating awarded $150,000. Retrieved from https://www.baltimorebrew.com/2016/07/12/victim-of-widely-publicized-police-beating-awarded-150000-2/

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Kubotan. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubotan

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